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Модальные глаголы имеют не все временные формы. Отсутствующие временные формы восполняются эквивалентами модальных глаголов.


Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты Present Past Future
1. CAN can could -
to be able (to) am able (to) is able (to) are able (to) was able (to) were able (to) shall be able (to) will be able (to)
2. MAY may might -
to be allowed (to) am allowed (to) is allowed (to) are allowed (to) was allowed (to) were allowed (to) shall be allowed (to) will be allowed (to)
3. MUST must - -
to have (to) have (to) has (to) had (to) shall have (to) will have (to)
to be (to) am (to) is (to) are (to) was (to) were (to) -
should should - -
ought (to) ought (to) - -
to be obliged (to) am obliged (to) is obliged (to) are obliged (to) was obliged (to) were obliged (to) shall be obliged (to) will be obliged (to)



Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на сказуемое с эквивалентом модального глагола.

1. He is to come to the lab at 10 o’clock. 2. The atom is to serve mankind. 3. He had to work hard before he was able to complete his research. 4. You will have to show the equation to your teacher. 5. As the student was late he was not allowed to enter the classroom. 6. He is to take his exam in June. 7. You ought to see a doctor. 8. You should know about it. 9. The students were unable (were not able) to do the work without their teacher’s help. He had to help them.

10. These laboratories have to buy modern equipment.



Префиксы с отрицательным значением

dis- disorganized

il- illegal

im- impossible

in- informal

ir- irregular

mis- misinformed

non- non-round

un- unsuccessful

de- decode

under- underestimate

anti- antiwar


Наиболее употребительные префиксы

co- cooperate

counter- counter-weight

extra- extraordinary

in- inlay

multi- multistage

over- overcome

poly- polytechnical

post- postwar

pre- prewar

re- reorganize

trans- transformation

super- superprofits

under- underground



1. Прочитайте и переведите слова:

Remake, overpay, subsystem, overload, preheat, enlarge, interaction, semiconductor, reconstruct, superlow, overheat, interact, subway, rebuild, overwork, reorganize, superheat, overpay, reproduce, overvalue, antisocial, cooperation, postdated, supersonic, demilitarize, extraordinary, prehistoric, resell.


2. Прочитайте и переведите слова:

Unhappy, non-essential, disconnect, incorrect, imperfect, immobile, irresponsible, illiberal, unfamiliar, unfit, misuse, indivisible, undesirable, indifferent, unproductive, non-metallic, unwanted, independent, impure, irrelative, illogical, disconnect, misinformation, dislike, inorganic, unstable, non-living, inexpensive, irregular, indefinite.


Основные суффиксы существительных

-er user, sender

-or operator, accumulator

-ment development

-ion promotion

-ence reference

-ive initiative

-ance performance

-age coverage

-ing training

-cy accuracy

-ism capitalism

-ness politeness

-dom freedom

-ship partnership

-ity reliability

-ist economist


Основные суффиксы прилагательных и наречий

-able changeable

-al professional

-ant important

-ary monetary

-ed limited

-ent confident

-ful successful

-ial industrial

-ible responsible

-ic economic

-ing leading

-ive competitive

-less useless

-ous famous

-y wealthy

-ly costly



1. Прочитайте и переведите слова:

1. Remarkable, valuable, profitable, marketable, exchangeable, understandable, variable.

2. Impractical, unstable, uncertain, useless, helpless, annually, personally, fully, deeply, recently, naturally, freely, meaningful, technological, active, serious, attentive, local, accurate.

3. Subcontractor, owner, computer, buyer, manager, operator.

4. Locality, property, difficulty, foundation, specialization, contribution, reliability, unity, reality, prosperity, publication, formality, subdivision, development, unemployment, friendship, reference, performance.

2. Прочитайте и переведите слова:

account – accountant – accounting – accounts – accountable

own – owner – ownership

trade – trader – trading – trade

lead – leader – leading – leadership

develop – development – developed

employ – employee – employer – employment – unemployment

produce – product – production – productive

profit – profitable – profitability

compete – competitor – competition – competitive

economy – economics – economic – economical – economically – economize – economist

cooperate – cooperation – cooperative


3. Прочитайте и переведите предложения:

1. The situation in the market is very changeable. 2. His professional skills are high. 3. It was an important decision. 4. The monetary unit is understandable. 5. They are very confident and independent. 6. The successful candidate must be creative. 7. He is responsible for this division. 8. We are a leading company in the market. 9. We produce competitive products. 10. These were useless efforts. 11. It was a costly mistake. 12. IBM is a famous company. 13. They were wealthy bankers. 14. He is a famous lawyer. 15. Our auditors were sent to audit the firm accounts. 16. The development of this line is important. 17. She has got a promotion. 18. You did it on your own initiative. 19. Her performance is very good. 19. Employee training programs are very interesting. 20. Everything should be done with accuracy. 21. In over 150 years capitalism spread all over the world. 22. Sometimes English does not use forms of politeness which are common in other languages. 23. He is enjoying his newly-found freedom. 24. Their products are famous for their reliability. 25. He will be a very good economist.


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