THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
ro reach – достигать / earth – земля / to seek – искать / to fail – не удаваться, провалиться / to sign – подписать / in search of – в поисках чего-либо / due to – из-за / native – местный / while – пока, в то время как / unique – уникальный, единственный / a bell – колокол / bald – лысый / an eagle – орел / background – история, фон / to adopt – принять / struggle – бороться / slavery – рабство / to abolish – уничтожать / currently – в настоящее время / to declare – объявлять / strength – сила / freedom – свобода / bearded – бородатый / to point at – указывать на / to arrive – прибывать / a goddess – богиня / to hold – держать / law – закон / to symbolize – символизировать / to sail – плыть, отплывать / under – под / in honour of – в честь / throughout – повсюду, везде / death – смерть / to include – включать / a melting pot – плавильный котел / to melt – плавить; таять / monarchy – монархия
Who Discovered America?
America was discovered by Christopher Columbus. Reaching Asia from Europe was a complicated thing in those days because of geological confusion, political problems and undiscovered routes. Columbus himself believed that the earth was round and he calculated the position of the countries in Asia that he was planning to visit and trade, based on that assumption. His plans were wrong but it helped him to discover America. He started to seek support for his exploration from top officials in Portugal, England and other monarchies and failed multiple times. Eventually, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella agreed to help Columbus with his mission. Once the contract was signed, Columbus started his voyage from Palos, Spain on August 3rd, 1492 in search of Asia. On October 11th, 1492, he reached the Caribbean islands. He met the local inhabitants and due to their resemblance with the native South Asian people, he thought he had finally reached Asia while actually he reached and discovered a new continent, America.
Every nation has symbols—specific objects that represent beliefs, values, traditions that make that country unique. Six U.S. symbols are the Liberty Bell, the U.S. flag, the bald eagle, the national anthem, Uncle Sam, and the Statue of Liberty.
The Liberty Bell was commissioned by the Pennsylvania colony in 1752. Many people believe that the Liberty Bell was rung to mark the reading of the Declaration of Independence on July 8, 1776. The bell was adopted as a symbol of the struggle to abolish slavery; that’s why it is called the Liberty Bell. The bell currently resides in the Liberty Bell Center on Philadelphia’s Independence Mall.
The flag of the United States is known as the “Stars and Stripes”. The 50 stars on the flag represent the 50 states of the United States of America and the 13 stripes represent the thirteen British colonies that declared independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain and became the first states in the Union.
The bald eagle was chosen as the emblem of the United States of American, because of its long life, great strength and majestic looks, and also because it was then believed to exist only on this continent. The eagle represents freedom.
Uncle Sam is a symbol of the U.S. government. He is portrayed as an older, bearded man dressed in clothes that evoke the U.S. flag. The best-known image of Uncle Sam was as a recruiting tool for the U.S. Army during World War I. It shows Uncle Sam pointing at the viewer over the caption: “I Want YOU for the U.S. Army.”
The Statue of Liberty is one of the first things people see when they arrive in “the Big Apple” by sea. It was a gift to the United States from the people of France. The statue shows Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom. Located in New York Harbor, the statue holds a torch in one hand and a tablet representing the law in the other. The statue is an iconic symbol of freedom.
88. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. Why is the U.S. flag called the 50-starred flag?
2. Are there any other Statues of Liberty? Where are they located?
3. What is “the Big Apple”?
4. Who is Uncle Sam?
5. What does the Statue of Liberty symbolize?
6. Columbus was Italian. So why did he sail under the Spanish flag?
The United States emerged from 13 British colonies located along the Atlantic seaboard. Disputes between Great Britain and the colonies led to the war. The war ended in 1783 with the recognition of independence of the United States from the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The United States of America is the third largest country in the world in population, and the fourth largest country in area. It is situated in central North Americawith Canada to the north, Mexicoto the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The two newest states Alaska (1959) and Hawaii (1959) are separated from the continental US. The total area of the United States is about 9,4 million square kilometers. Its capital is in Washington. It was named in honour of the first President, George Washington. English is spoken throughout the country. Spanish is the second most common language in the United States.
The country occupies a favourable geographical position. The Atlantic Ocean is of great importance for the country’s sea communications with Europe, Africa and South America,and the Pacific Ocean — with Asiaand Australia. The two oceans are connected by the Panama Canal.
The longest river of the country is the Mississippi. The two largest rivers of the Pacific side are the Colorado in the south and the Columbia in the north.
The United States has thousands of lakes of all kinds and sizes. The Great Lakes make up the largest group of lakes in the country. The total area of the Great Lakes (over 245,000 km2) is equal to that of Great Britain.
The climate of the United States varies greatly from place to place. Average annual temperatures range from — 13°C in Barrow, Alaska, to 25.7°C in Death Valley, California.
The population is about 306 mln people. Whites make up about 80 per cent of the country’s population. Blacks form the largest minority group. They account for about 12 per cent of the population. American Indians make up almost 1 per cent of the population. The population includes people from almost every part of the world. The United States has often been called a melting pot. This term refers to the idea that the country is a place where people from many lands have come together and formed a unified culture.
New York City, with about 7 million people, is the largest US city. Other US cities — Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, San Diego, Detroit, and Dallas.
The USA is a federal republic, it consists of fifty states.
89. Вопросы к тексту:
1. How were the United States formed?
2. Where are the United States situated? Which countries are they share borders with?
3. How many states do the USA consist of? What are the two newest states? Are they connected to the continental part of the US?
4. Whom was the capital named after? What are the two most spoken languages of the US?
5. Why do the USA occupy a favorable geographical position?
6. What is the longest river of the country? Name the other rivers and lakes.
7. What about the US population? Why are the US called a melting pot?
8. Name the largest US city. What is «the Big Apple»? Name other American cities.
9. Are the US a monarchy?
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