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Ex. 234. Complete the gaps in these sentences with a word or phrase from the box


must mustn’t (x2) have to don’t have to (x2) had to didn’t have to


1. You __________ smoke in the library.

2. It’s free to get in: you _____________ pay.

3. I missed my train and I ______________ wait half an hour for the next one.

4. It’s not a direct flight to New Zealand: you ______________ change planes at Bangkok.

5. There were only two people in front of me in the queue so I ____________ wait long.

6. Don’t cry, Jessica – you ____________play with John if you don’t want to.

7. Children ___________walk on the railway line.

8. I ___________ remember to post this letter.


Ex. 235. Fill in the gaps with mustn’t or needn’t.


A teacher is speaking to his students before a test:


“You are going to have a test today. Your test papers are on your desks. You 1) ___mustn’t__

begin until I tell you. You 2) ____________ hurry; you have plenty of time. You 3) __________

speak during the test. You 4) ____________ copy your friends’ work and you 5) ____________

open any of your books. You 6) _____________ write in pen; if you prefer you can write in pencil. You 7) _____________ stay when you’re finished; you can leave if you want to, but you 8) _____________ be noisy. When you leave you 9) ______________ wait for your friends outside the classroom. Wait outside the building! Finally, I wish you all good luck. You can begin now!”

Ex. 236 Complete the sentences. Use mustn’t or needn’t + a verb from the box.

Use each verb twice.

help ask read leave work


1. Carol __mustn’t help__ you with your homework. It’s important that you do it yourself.

2. You __needn’t help__ with the shopping. John has already done it.

3. We ____________________ Bill about his holidays. He doesn’t want to talk about it.

4. I just want a general idea of the story so I _________________________ all the book.

5. You ___________________ Harry for the answer. I can tell you.

6. You look really tired. You studied all last night, so tonight you _________________.

7. You ____________________yet! You haven’t had anything to eat.

8. You ____________________ my letter. They’re private.

9. We _____________________ yet. We’ve got plenty of time to get to the station.

10. I’m sure the shop won’t be busy so you_____________________ if you don’t want to.


Ex. 237. Read the situation and make sentences with needn’t have.


1. Paul went out. He took an umbrella because he thought it was going to rain. But it didn’t rain.

__He needn’t have taken an umbrella. ________________________________

2. Linda bought some eggs when she went shopping. When she got home, she found that she

already had plenty of eggs. She __________________

3. A colleague got angry with you at work. He shouted at you, which you think was unnecessary.

Later you say to him: You ______________________


4. Brain had money problems, so he sold his car. A few days later he won some money in

a lottery. He ________________________________

5. We took a camcorder with us on holidays, but we didn’t use it in the end.

We ________

6. I thought I was going to miss my train, so I rushed to the station. But the train was late and

in the end I had to wait twenty minutes. ___________





I needn’t have doneit.Можно было не делать (а я сделал)

I didn’t have to do it. Можно было не делать (я и не делал)


Ex. 238. Say the whole sentence in English. Use need or have to.


1. a) Можно было не покупать сахар, and I didn’t go to the shop.

b) Why did you go to the shop? Можно было и не покупать сахар: we have enough of it.


2. a) Мы могли не тревожиться за нее, as we knew that she was taken very good care of.

b) Не надо было тревожиться за нас: you see that everything is OK.


3. а) Можно было и не ходить туда, you have wasted your time. They have phoned us and

given us all the instructions.

b) Можно было не ходить туда, and we remained at home.


4. a) Мне не надо было идти в библиотеку, as I had all the books I needed.

b) Незачем было ходить в библиотеку: you have only wasted your time. Don’t you know

that I’ll give you all the necessary books.


5. a) Я мог не ездить в центр, as a very good department store had recently opened in our

parts, so I went there and bought everything I needed.

b) Вы могли бы и не ездить в центр: you could have bought everything you needed in the

local shops.


6. a) Вы могли бы и не проверять правописание: the computer can do all the correcting.

b) Я мог не проверять правописание: the computer did all the correcting, so it didn’t take

me long to complete my work.


7. a) Я мог не звонить ему, so I went to bed at once.

b) It turned out that я мог и не звонить ему, as he knew everything from his sister.


Ex. 239. Match the English sentences with their equivalents in Russian.


  1. I must sell my keyboard. I don’t like it.   2. I’ll have to sell my keyboard. 3. I had to sell my keyboard.   4. You must sell this keyboard and buy a better make. 5. You mustn’t sell this keyboard.   6. Must I sell this keyboard? I like it. 7. Did you have to sell your keyboard?   8. You don’t have to sell this keyboard. Give it to Bill as a present. 9. You needn’t sell this keyboard. It works very well. 10. You needn’t have sold your keyboard. 11. You must be selling this keyboard.   12. He must have sold his keyboard.       1. Стоит ли продавать эту клавиатуру? Она мне нравится. 2. Зря ты продал свою клавиатуру. 3. Он, должно быть, продал свою клавиа- туру. 4. Нет необходимости продавать эту кла- виатуру. Она очень хорошо работает. 5. Я должен продать свою клавиатуру. Она мне не нравится. 6. Тебе нельзя продавать эту клавиатуру. 7. Вы, должно быть, продаете эту клавиа- туру. 8. Мне придется продать эту клавиатуру.   9. Вам пришлось продать клавиатуру?   10. Мне пришлось продать клавиатуру. 11. Не нужно продавать эту клавиатуру. Подари ее Биллу. 12. Ты должен продать эту клавиатуру и купить новую модель.


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