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Ex. 5 Translate the story. Turn direct speech into indirect speech with tense changes




 

"Я просмотрела результаты ваших анализов", - сказала доктор Лестер.

"Вы очень поправились", - сказала она мне.

"Вы набрали (gain) пять с половиной килограммов за шесть месяцев", - добавила она.

"Если вы будете продолжать в том же духе, вы станете очень толстым (get fat)," – сказала она мне.

"Я вынуждена посадить вас на строгую диету (put on a strict diet); вы должны есть очень мало," - добавила она.

"Хорошо, я буду жить на воде и орехах", - сказал я, разозлившись.

"Да, вы можете жить на воде и орехах, но без орехов," - согласилась доктор Лестер.

 

 

MODAL VERBS. МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ

 

Meaning Present Past Future
1. Can 1) Физическая и умственная способность, возможность выполнить действие. Перевод: могу, умею. 2) Просьба (вежливая – could). 3) Запрет. Перевод: нельзя. 4) Удивление. Перевод: не может быть, неужели). can, cannot (can’t)     I can do it now. I can’t swim. Can I help you? could, could not (couldn’t)   was / were able (to) – смог, сумел, был в состоянии   She could swim well. I was able to get there just in time. can; shall / will be able (to), shall not (shan’t) / will not (won’t) be able (to) I can phone you at 5 o’clock. I’ll be able to translate this text.
2. Must 1) Долженствова-ние. 2) Необходимость, совет, приказ. Перевод: должен, нужно, надо. 3) Предположение (уверенность). Перевод: должно быть, вероятно. 4) Строгий запрет. Перевод: нельзя. must, must not (mustn’t)   - Must I do it? - No, you needn’t. He must be ill. had (to); did not have (to)…; Did you have (to) …? I had to go there. - Did you have to go there? - Yes, I did. shall / will have (to); shall / will not have (to)   I’ll have to go there.
3. May 1) Разрешение. Перевод: можно. 2) Предположение (неуверенность). Перевод: может быть, возможно. 3) Упрек (might + Perf. Inf.) Перевод: мог бы. may, may not   - May I come in? - Yes, you may. It may (might) rain today. might, might not   He said that we might come later. may; shall / will be allowed (to), shall / will not be allowed (to); You may phone me tonight. He says that I will be allowed to stay here.
4. Should / ought (to) 1) Совет. 2) Моральный долг, обязанность. 2) Упрёк (+Perf. Inf.). Перевод: следует, следовало бы. should do / ought to do   You should do it. should have done / ought to have done   He should have done it. should do / ought to do   You should visit him.
5. to have (to) Необходимость, вызванная какими-то обстоятельства-ми. Перевод: должен, приходится. have / has to, do / does not have to, Do you have to…?   He has to work much. Does he have to work much? had to, did not have to…; Did you have to … ?   I had to walk there. Why did you have to walk there?   shall / will have to …   Will you have to … ?   You will have to get up early tomorrow. When will you have to get up?
6. to be (to) Необходимость в соответствии с договорённостью, планом, расписанием. am is to meet are   We are to meet now. was to meet were   He was to wait for me. am is to meet are   We are to discuss it tomorrow.
7. need (needn’t) Необходимость или отсутствие необходимости выполнить действие. Перевод: (не) нужно, надо. You needn’t hurry. You needn’t have come. - Need I go there? - No, you needn’t. - Yes, you must.

Ex. 1. Use "can," "may," "must" or "to be able".



1. The man ... be a foreigner. He ... not understand Russian. 2. How ... we get to the centre of London? 3. It's 10 o'clock, you ... go to bed at once. 4. If you go through the forest you ... lose your way. 5. ... I use your camera? 6. Flue ... be very dangerous. 7. Mrs. Smith ... be at least 60. 8. Something ... be done to stop the criminal. 9. ... you understand what he’s speaking about? 10. You ... come a little later tomorrow. 11. She ... not be 35, she has grandchildren. 12. If we take a taxi, we … catch the last train. 13. … you find him? – Yes, I was. He was outside.

 

Ex. 2. Use "mustn't" or "needn't":

1. You ... clean the room today, you can do it tomorrow morning. 2. I ... forget to post the letter mother gave me. 3. We have a lot of food at home so we ... go shopping today. 4. The baby is asleep, you ... shout. 5. You ... shout, I'm not deaf. 6. You ... worry about your luggage, I'll take care of it. 7. Must I come on Saturday? — No, you ... . 8. This book is very valuable, you ... lose it. 9. You ... eat the salad if you don't like it. 10. We have plenty of time so we ... hurry. 11. You ... tell anybody what I said. 12. You ... cross the street when the red light is on. 13. Must I type these letters today? — No, you ... . 14. You ... remind her about the meeting. I warned her yesterday.

 

Ex. 3. Use "must," "to have" or "to be".

1. The train ... arrive in five minutes, we ... hurry up. 2. If he doesn't meet you at the station you ... take a taxi. 3. They ... be here an hour ago. 4. I ... go to the library after classes because I ... make a report tomorrow. 5. It ... be a very interesting novel, I know the author. 6. I don't think you ... wait long. 7. They ... marry early in June, so they ... stay in Moscow. 8. She ... clean her shoes after working in the garden. 9. The lecture ... begin in a minute. 10. You ... be tired, you ... have a little rest. 11. I ... answer a lot of questions at the examination. 12. We ... leave on Monday

 

Ex. 4. Use "must," "have to," "ought to" or "should".

1. If you want to be fit, you ... not eat cakes, but you certainly ... walk a lot. 2. I'm late. I ... hurry. 3. There is light in the house, somebody ... be in. 4. The bus we took didn't go up the hill and we ... walk. 5. Every child ... know traffic rules. 6. It's dark outside, it ... be about 8 now. 7. You ... not eat so many sweets because they contain a lot of calories. 8. You ... not speak to your mother like this. 9. Why ... I do somebody else's work? 10. I think you ... give up smoking.

Ex. 5. Fill in the space with the most suitable modal verb: can(not), could (not), be able (to), may, might, must (not), to have (to), should (not), ought (to), need (not), to be (to).

1. The school's regime was harsh at that time. Pupils ... to get up at 4.30 every morning for prayers and Ex.s.

2. I ... help you. You need to speak to the manager.

3. You ... tell anyone about our meeting. Let's keep it secret. - You ... worry. Nobody will know anything.

4. I'm not sure at all, but Tom ... know about it.

5. You ... work harder if you want to learn English.

6. Oh no! I ... find my passport anywhere. - I think it ... be in your briefcase or you ... have left it at work.

7. The American President is elected for four years of service and ... be reelected for four additional years.

8. I believe him, he ... deceive me. You ... to believe him too.

9. You ... do it at once, otherwise you'll let me down.

10. ... I go out? I ... to meet them at the entrance.

11. You ... be late. You ... to come at 5 o'clock. They will be waiting for you there.

12. The doctor said that you ... give up smoking.

13. You ... not come. There is nothing to do.

14. The stadium was full of fans, but we ... to get tickets for this match.

15. She ... speak three languages, but she ... write any of them when she was younger.

 





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