Упр. 277. Прочитайте и переведите предложения; объясните правила действия согласования времён
1.She called my mother to say that they had got a telegramme from Boston. 2. He asked me what work I was doing. 3. She said she had forgotten what had happened a few minutes before. 4. Our teacher said he was pleased with our work. 5. She could not understand why he had told them a lie. 6. He said yesterday that by the time we were back he would have finished the letter. 7. He asked me whether I spoke English. 8. She said that she would apply to university the next year. 9. I knew that he had been drawing the picture for a week before he showed it to me. 10. The policeman asked him if that had ever happened before. 11. She asked me whether I intended to go to university. 12.He said he wanted a better job.
Упр. 278. Прочитайте и переведите предложения; объясните, почему здесь не соблюдены правила согласования времён.
1.He says that he is free tomorrow. 2. He spoke with the satisfaction of a competent workman who knows his job from A to Z. 3. Monty told me that in England it is illegal to own a gun without a permit (разрешение). 4. The teacher told us that there are 26 letters in the English alphabet. 5. The boy did not know that water boils at 100o С. 6.Last year I skated much better than I do now. 7. She says that she will apply to Law School next year. 8. He knows that I was busy yesterday. 9. Yesterday I met a friend of mine who works as an investigator. 10. She wasn’t able to translate the article because she doesn’t know English well enough.
Упр. 279. Поставьте глагол в скобках в нужную форму. Действия в главном и придаточном предложениях одновременны.
1. I thought you (have) better sense. 2. She could not imagine what he (to do) there. 3. I forgot what he (look) like. 4.What surprised me was that Pat (be) so much at home there. 5. I was surprised you (know) my name. 6. He told his father that at that time he (make) ten dollars a week less. 7. The last two weeks she had been saying to everyone who phoned her that she (be) unwell and (not leave) home. 8. When I knew him better he admitted that he (feel) lonely in London. 9. She forbade my walking in the park alone. She said it (be) dangerous. 10. I wondered what she (do) there so late at night.
Упр. 280. Поставьте глагол в скобках в нужную форму. Действие в придаточном предложении предшествует действию в главном.
1. At ten o’clock he telephoned again, saying that he (change) his mind. 2. I knew that for the past twenty-five years he (buy) the same paper each morning. 3. It was whispered that the headmaster (receive) a telegram from the boy’s father. 4.It was not known where he (spend) his early childhood. 5. The question was why he (commit) that crime. 6. Then he admitted that he (live) in his father’s house since the summer. 7.She wrote that they (let) their house for a year. 8. His father had once confided to her that he (want) to be a lawyer. 9. One day she told me why she never (get married). 10. But she was uneasy. Her father could easily find out that she (tell) a lie.
Упр. 281. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в соответствующую форму, соблюдая правила согласования времён.
1.When I went into the office next morning I already (formulate) my plan. 2. Well, I don’t think I ever (see) you before. 3.She ended by saying that she (think) she (make) a mistake. 4.She knew what (go) on in their minds. 5. She promised that she (speak) to him next Sunday. 6. So I went into the living room, where my aunt already (wait) for me. 7. She phoned her husband to the office to say that her brother (return) from abroad. 8.He remembered that he (not see) Jane for three weeks. 9.She didn’t know why he (invent) such an incredible story. 10.I thought they (invite) us to their party the next week.
I.Прямая речь (Direct Speech) – это непосредственные слова говорящего, передаваемые без изменений. На письме прямая речь заключается в кавычки, которые в английском языке ставятся вверху строки:
John says, “I am sure everything will be all right.” – Джон говорит: «Я уверен, что все будет хорошо».
John said, “I am sure everything will be all right.” – Джон сказал: «Я уверен, что все будет хорошо».
Косвенная речь (Reported Speech) передает речь путем пересказа в виде дополнительных придаточных предложений:
John says that he is sure that everything will be all right. – Джон говорит, что уверен, что все будет хорошо.
John said that he was sure that everything would be all right. Джон сказал, что уверен, что все будет хорошо.
II. При переводе прямой речи в косвенную необходимо соблюдать ряд правил.
При переводе прямой речи в косвенную личные и притяжательные местоимения меняются соответственно смыслу:
He said, “I am busy.” – Он сказал: «Я занят.» " He said that he was busy. – Он сказал, что он занят.
Lillian said, “My sister speaks French well.” – Лилиан сказала: « Моя сестра хорошо говорит по-французски.» " Lillian said that her sister spoke French well. – Лилиан сказала, чтоее сестра хорошо говорит по-французски.
Если глагол, вводящий косвенную речь, употреблен в одном из прошедших времен, то в предложении действует правило согласования времен.
He said, “I am busy.” " He said that he was busy.
He said, “I was busy.” " He said that he had been busy.
He said, “I will be busy.” " He said that he would be busy.
таблица изменения временных форм
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