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Report on expenditure Доклад о расходах




Active vocabulary

Nouns

1. following – следующий

2. item – пункт

3. stamp – марка

4. saving – сбережение

5. call – звонок

6. payment – оплата

7. owner – владелец

8. stock market – биржа

9. loan – заем

10. cash dispenser – банкомат

11. charge – оплата

12. target – цель

Verbs

13. control – управлять

14. buy – покупать

15. switch off – выключать

16. re–use – использовать вновь

17. keep – хранить

18. keep up – успевать, придерживаться

19. leave – оставлять

20. waste – тратить впустую

21. lend – отдалживать

22. owe – быть должным, в долгу

23. overdraw – превышать

24. withdraw – снимать

Adjectives

25. cheaper – дешевле

26. less – меньше

27. local – местный

28. urgent – срочный

29. wise – мудрый

30. advisable – советуемый

Exercise 164

Write out the words concerning money.

Cheque cash clock period pay earn spend finance capital profit loss budget schedule minute coin hour place business second

 

Exercise 165

Remember the old business saying “Time is money”. Here are some verbs you can use both with time and money.

Spend waste save have make invest

Use one of these verbs to complete the first gap in the sentence and time or moneyto complete the second one.

  1. I think you should …………….. your ………………….. in the New York stock market. That’s the way to get rich!
  2. I usually get the train to work. It’s a bit more expensive than the bus but it ……………….. me a lot of ………………….. every morning because I get to work much earlier.
  3. There are too many meetings in our company. We ………………… a lot of ……………….. talking about things. But nothing gets done.
  4. I’d love to help you but I just don’t …………………. the ……………….. . I’ve got an urgent appointment at head office.
  5. Executives at head office have been told to …………………. less …………. on travel and entertainment. All departments have to make economies – from the top down.
  6. Teresa enjoys her new job, but she doesn’t …………………… as much ……………………. as she used to when she was on commission.

 

Exercise 166

Fill in the words.

Invest lend lose owe make keep up save earn spend take out

  1. If you take out a loan, make sure you can ………………..the payments.
  2. The bank manager refused to …………………..us the money we needed. She said that our accounting system was too disorganized.
  3. Diana has really done well since she moved to the States. She ……………………..more than $80,000, and she has a company car.
  4. We’ve decided to move to a new office to…………………………money. The place we rent at the moment is too expensive.
  5. Since I got my credit card I’ve …………………………far too much money.
  6. Scotbank decided to close its Tokyo operation because it was……………………..money.
  7. I wish I hadn’t…………………………….that loan. I still………………………….the bank £3,000. I don’t know when I’ll be able to pay it back.
  8. The easiest way to……………………………money is to………………………….wisely in the Stock Market.

Exercise 167



Make up word combinations.

Use pay cash change open make

1. ………a current account 4. …………bank charges

2. ………two hundred dollars 5. …………a bank transfer

3. ………this cheque 6. ………….the cash dispenser

 

Exercise 168

Use the word combinations from Exercise 167 to complete the following.

1. I’d like to ………………………………………………………………………………. .

Ø Of course. If you go over to the foreign desk someone will help you.

2. Excuse me. Can I …………………………………………………………………………?

Ø Certainly. Could you sign it on the back and date it, please

3. I’ve just moved here. I’d like to…………………………………………………………. .

Ø Certainly. Would you mind filling this form in. There is a minimum deposit of £20.

4. So with this new Scotbank Plus account the customer gets free banking.

Ø Not exactly. You …………………………………. if your account is overdrawn.

5. Don’t the banks close at three around here?

Ø Yes, but you can still …………………………………………………to withdraw money.

6. I’d like to ………………………………………………………………………………

Ø How much would you like to send?

Exercise 169

Use these clues to help you fill in a copy of this word puzzle and find the hidden word. All the words are in Peter Hall’s report above.

Clues

1. Suggestions

2. Written description of a situation

3. The “facts” in a report

4. Money kept in an office for small payments

5. Not business (eg phone call)

6. Money you pay out

7. Ways of spending less money

8. Numbers

9. You use this coloured paper to make copies

10.Money paid regularly to the owner of a building for its use

11.Local government tax on buildings


 

            1R                            
          2R                              
            3F                            
      4P                                    
    5P                                      
6E                                        
    7S                                    
              8F                          
        9C                                
            10 R                            
        11 R                                
                                                       

 

Exercise 170

Write a memo to the staff from Peter Hall about his findings on expenditure. Suggest ways they can save money, like this:

Please do not leave the lights on.

Please use the phone after 1pm.

 

Exercise 171

Translate into Russian.

1. In September the company spent 10% of petty cash on stationery.

2. Every month Simon buys many stamps and envelopes.

3. Sheila spends the most of petty cash on travel.

4. Why don’t you use carbon paper, not the photocopier.

5. The company pays much money to the owner of the building.

6. We should reduce the sales budget.

7. Governments should stop spending money on space research.

8. Everyone should learn how to use a computer.

 

Exercise 172

Paraphrase the sentences.

  1. I strongly recommend me reduce the sales budget. We should / ought to reduce sales budget.
  2. There’s a small chance that marketing would accept a cut in their budget. Marketing _______________
  3. A cut in the production budget is out of the question. We _________________________
  4. It’s possible to spend more on direct sales activities. We __________________________
  5. It is advisable to reduce the total budget. We ___
  6. It’s impossible for research to continue on this budget. Research ____________________
  7. There is a possibility that more money will be made available. More money ___
  8. I strongly recommend we do not cut the marketing budget. We _____________________
  9. There’s a small chance sales will not reach their target. Sales ______________________
  10. Production will possibly need more money later in the year. Production ___

 

 

Lesson 17 Урок17

Some time ago Прошлое

Active vocabulary

Nouns

1. applicant – заявитель

2. СV(curriculum vitae) – краткая биография

3. sales executive – торговый работник

4. salesman – продавец

5. order – порядок

6. alarm clock – будильник

7. clothes – одежда

8. church – церковь

9. bell – звонок

Verbs

9. sell – продавать

10. know – знать

11. explain – объяснять

12. late – опаздывать

13. go off – звенеть (о звонке)

14. knock on – стучать (в дверь)

15. wait – ждать

16. put on – надевать

17. run – бежать

18. follow – следовать

Adverbs

19. satisfactory – удовлетворительно

20. quite – довольно

21.clearly – чётко

22. earlier – раньше

23. ago – тому назад

24. first – сначала

 

Grammar notes

Прошедшее Неопределённое (Простое) время – Past Indefinite (Simple) Tense – употребляется для выражения действия, которое произошло в какой–то момент в прошлом. Все глаголы в английском языке по форме образования Past Indefinite делятся на две группы: правильные и неправильные.

Правильные глаголы образуют Past Indefinite при помощи окончания – ed, которoe прибавляется к основе глагола.

Last week I worked on my report. – На прошлой неделе я работал над

докладом.

Окончание –edпроизносится:

[t] после глухих согласных [d] после звонких согласных и гласных [id] после t и d
to work–worked to hope–hoped to wash–washed to play–played to live–lived to open–opened to greet–greeted to end–ended to last–lasted

 


При образовании прошедшего времени соблюдаются следующие правила орфографии:

· если глагол оканчивается на немую –е, то при прибавлении окончания –еd , она выпадает:

to live – lived to smoke – smoked

· глаголы, основа которых оканчивается на –у с предшествующей согласной, меняют –у на –i :

to study – studied to copy – copied

· глаголы, основа которых оканчивается на –у с предшествующей гласной, –у сохраняют :

to play – played to stay – stayed

· глаголы, оканчивающиеся на согласную с предшествующим кратким гласным звуком, удваивают конечную согласную:

to stop – stopped to prefer – preferred

Неправильные глаголы имеют особую форму в Past Indefinite , которую необходимо запомнить (выучить наизусть):

to write–wrote–written

Mike wrote me a letter yesterday. – Майк написал мне вчера письмо.

· Вопросительная форма как правильных, так и неправильных глаголов образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to doв прошедшем времени – didи инфинитива (что делать?), который ставится впереди предложения:

Did they work? Они работали?

Did Paul have lunch? Пол обедал?

 

Короткие ответы

Yes,I did. No, I didn’t. Yes,we did. No, we didn’t.

Yes, you did. No, you didn’t.

Yes, she/he/it did. No, she/he/it didn’t. Yes, they did. No, they didn’t.

· Отрицательная форма как правильных, так и неправильных глаголов образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола didи отрицательной частицы not, которая ставится после did:

He did not speak. Он не разговаривал.

I didn’t work. Я не работал.

 

В Past Indefinite часто употребляются следующие обстоятельства времени:

yesterday – вчера

the day before yesterday – позавчера

last week (month, year) – на прошлой неделе (месяце, году)

last time – в прошлый раз

last – в последний раз

two years ago – два года тому назад

in 1999 – в 1999 году

 

Exercise 173

Write the Past tense of these verbs:

1. watch – ..................... 7. walk – ................... 13. live – ...................

2. clean – ...................... 8. visit – .................... 14. like – ...................

3. stop – ........................ 9. work – ...................15. enjoy – ................

4. arrive – ..................... 10. type – ....................16. grab – .................

5. return – ..................... 11. look – ...................17. copy – .................

6. cook – ...................... 12. play – ...................18. phone – ..............

 

Exercise 174 º (We Mean Business p 78, ex 144)

Listen to the verbs on the tape and put them into three columns according to the sound of the ending:

1. looked 5. worked 9. washed 13. filed

2. moved 6. ordered 10. photocopied 14. opened

3. waited 7. stopped 11. ended 15. started

4. visited 8. walked 12. typed 16. stayed

 

Exercise 175

Make sentences about things which happened some time ago, like this:

1. It is Friday. I (want) the stationery last Friday.

I wanted the stationery a week ago.

2. It is 1993. Peter (work) for BOS in 1991.

3. It is May. He (stop) work in January.

4. It is 10.05. I (answer) the telex at 10.00.

5. It is Monday. They (travel) to Scotland last Monday.

6. It is 11 o’clock. Simon (open) the mail at 10 o’clock.

7. It is November. Mr Passes (visit) BOS in October.

8. It is Thursday. Simon (post) the letter on Tuesday.

 

Exercise 176

Look at exercise 143. Ask and answer the questions, like this:

1. I / want / the stationery / yesterday? Did I want the stationery yesterday? No, I didn’t.

2. Peter / work / for BOS / two years ago?

3. He / stop / work / a month ago?

4. I / answer / the telex / five minutes ago?

5. They / travel / to Scotland / a week ago?

6. Simon / open / the mail / in the afternoon?

7. Mr Passes / visit / BOS / a week ago?

8. Simon / post / the letter / two days ago?

 

Exercise 177

Write sentences with Who / What / How / Why…?

  1. Harry arrived. – What time …….. Harry …………………………….?
  2. They wanted something. – What ………………………………………?
  3. The meeting finished – What time …………………………………….?
  4. She visited the warehouse. – What ……………………………………?
  5. Simon watched a film. – Who …………………………………………?
  6. The teacher checked the tests. – How many …………………………?
  7. Sheila studied French. – Why ……………………………………….?

Exercise 178

Practice Present and Past negative.

1. I / walk to work every morning – I don’t walk to work every morning. I didn’t walk to work yesterday.

2. type documents / every Monday / Helen

3. They / every month / visit foreign countries

4. every evening / Peter / watch football match

5. My colleagues / every day / study French

6. The secretary / count money

7. The manager / every week / prepare reports

Exercise 179

Complete the sentences with the verb in the negative.

  1. I saw John but I didn’t see Mary.
  2. They worked on Monday but they …………………… on Tuesday.
  3. They visited the shop but we ……………………….. the bank.
  4. She used a pen but she ……………………….. any paper.
  5. Jack studied French at school but ……………………… German.

Exercise 180

Make up the story in the past tense using the notes. The notes are not in the right order.

1. He (wake up) at 11 o’clock.

2. Then he (hear) the church bell.

3. One morning Fred MacLean’s alarm clock (not go off).

4. It (be) Sunday.

5. He (see) a taxi, but there (be) someone in it.

6. He (knock) on the door, but no one (be) there.

7. He (go off) the bus stop and (wait) for a bus, but the bus (not come).

8. He (put) on his clothes and (run) out of the house.

9. So he (run) to work.

Exercise 181

Ann now does the same things as Joy did when she worked for BOS. Look back at Joy’s routine. Last Wednesday Ann followed the same routine. Talk about what Ann did, like this:

What time did she start work? 9.30

What did she do first? She opened the post.

Exercise 182

Make questions using where, when, what time, why.

1. Where did you go yesterday? To the staff meeting. (I went to the staff meeting yesterday.)

2. ………………………….? Last month. (Jason arrived in Canada last month.)

3. ………………………………? At 7.05. (My plane landed at 7.05.)

4. ……………………………..? Because he was sick. (Paul stayed at home last night because he was sick.)

5. …………………………….? Around midnight. (Sheila finished her work around midnight.)

6. …………………………….? Last week. (The team made the market research last week.)

7. …………………………….? To Moscow. (The boss left for Moscow yesterday.)

8. …………………………….? In the boardroom. (The managers had their meeting in the boardroom yesterday morning.)

9. ……………………………..? Because it’s dark in here. (I turned on the light because it’s dark in here.)

10. ……………………………..? At 10 am. (Sylvia took Ms Rogers round the plant at 10 am.)

 

Grammar notes

Вопросительное местоимение who,кроме именительного падежа имеет ещё и объектный падеж.

Who typed the letter? Кто напечатал письмо? ( имен. падеж)

Who did you see? Кого ты видел? (объектн. падеж)

 


Exercise 183

Make up questions.

  1. Somebody broke the window. – Who broke the window?
  2. Somebody is coming. – Who …………………………………………?
  3. Somebody took my umbrella. – ……………………………………….?
  4. Somebody wants to see you. – …………………………………………?
  5. Somebody told me about the accident. – ………………………………?

Exercise 184

Make up questions.

  1. I met somebody. – Who did you meet?
  2. I saw somebody. – Who ………………………………………………?
  3. I phoned somebody. – Who …………………………………………..?
  4. I visited my parents. – ………………………………………………….?
  5. I’m talking to Simon. –……………………………………………….?

 

Exercise 185

Make up questions from these sentences, like this:

Sheila phoned Robert at 10 o’clock. (Robert) Who did Sheila phone at 10 o’clock?

1. Simon went to the bank on Wednesday. (Simon)

2. Helen asked Joy. (Joy)

3. Joy asked Simon. (Joy)

4. The accountant wrote the report. (accountant)

5. They liked Paul. (Paul)

6. I saw Mary at the party. (Mary)

7. Mary came to the party. (Mary)

8. John lives in that house. (John)

9. I called John. (John)

10.My cousin visited me. ( My cousin)

Exercise 186

Fill in the correct verb in Past Simple Tense..

Write drink do see buy sit meet drive be tell come take cost go

Yesterday morning we ...went... to the market. We ................... our shopping baskets. Father ...................... us there in the car. At the market, Mother ................... some fruit and vegetables. I ................... some birds that I wanted to buy. They ..................... a lot of money. Mother ..................... me they .................... too expensive. Then we ................. some friends and we all ...................... to a cafe. We ................. at a table outside and ....................orange juice. Then Mother and I ....................... home. In the afternoon I .................... my homework and ....................... a letter to my grandmother.

 

Exercise 187

Fill in the correct form of the verbs.

When Fernando Pinto became (to become) Director of Varig Airlines in January 1996, the job of turning the company around ………… (to be) compared to “raising the Titanic”. The company ………. (to be) behind in every way, and employee morale ………….. (to be) at an all–time low. Pinto’s office …………… (not/ to have/even) a computer, just a typewriter.

Pinto immediately ……………… (to announce) a plan to “revolutionize” the company. Focusing first on customer satisfaction, he ………… (to give) bonuses to employees who ………… (to meet) company goals of improved service. As a result, customer satisfaction ……………… (to improve) from 80 to 95 percent during Pinto’s first 18 months. To change the image of the company, he ………….. (to redesign) the old 1945 logo to a more modern–looking image. To increase Varig’s profitability, Pinto ……. (to have ) to sell aircraft, lay off 2,000 workers, and discontinue unprofitable routes. Finally, Pinto …………. (to bring) Varig into the modern era by purchasing 5,500 new computers, and he ……………. (to invest) $30 million in software programs to increase efficiency.

Although Varig …………………. (to continue) to have problems, the turnaround …………. (to be) considered a success. In 1999, Pinto ……… (to be) elected “Businessman of the Year” by Brazil’s National Commerce Federation. Varig also ………… (to win) the World Travel Award for the best airline in Latin America that year.

  • turn around – полностью изменить
  • compare – сравнить
  • raise – поднять
  • morale– моральный
  • low – низкий
  • immediately – немедленно
  • announce – объявлять
  • goal – задача
  • improved – улучшенный
  • logo – лозунг
  • modern – современный
  • profitability рентабельность
  • lay off – откладывать, прекращать
  • discontinue – прекращать
  • routе – курс, направление
  • purchase – купить, приобрести
  • efficiency – эффективность
  • although – хотя
  • consider – рассматривать, обдумывать
  • success – удача
  • elect – выбирать

Exercise 188

Match the beginnings and endings of the sentences according to the text above.

a. In order to improve customer satisfaction, 1. so he discontinued some of them.
b. Pinto wanted to change the image of the company, 2. Pinto invested in new technology.
c. Because the company had financial difficulties, 3. Pinto gave bonuses to employees.
d. Varig’s routes were unprofitable, 4. so he redesigned the logo.
e. In order to improve Varig’s computer systems, 5. Pinto sold some of Varig’s airplanes.

Exercise 189

Fill in the past from of the verb:

1. do In the past we……….more business with Japanese than now.

2. grow The company…………very rapidly in its first 12 years.

3. become We……………a public company in 1985.

4. cut We………..our advertising budget because of the recession.

5. lend The bank……………us $45,000 to fund our expansion.

6. get We………….a big surprise when they made their offer.

7. take They……………a long time to make up their minds.

8. lose We…………….the contract because of a lower bid.

9. run Paula…………..the company from her home.

10. win Last month we…………….an important order from the Government.

11. meet I first …………..Roberto when we were working in Budapest.

12. make Last year our Japanese branch……..a small profit for the first time.

13. sell Greenham Products…………..its old headquarters for $46 million.

14. rise Profits………………due to an improved management strategy.

15. spend We…………….all of our advertising budget in the first six months.

16. fall Our profits …….last year, but things are looking much healthier now.

17. lead Transware, our main competitors, …the market throughout the 80th.

18. think Our competitors…………..that we were going to increase our prices.

Exercise 190





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