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E. Match the words from the article with their definitions


1) questionnaire a) reductions in the cost of making and
2) prosperity selling products that are made pos-
3) merchandising sible because a business is very large
4) white-collar workers b) the business of arranging and showing
5) blue-collar workers products in shops in a way that
6) department store makes people want to buy them
7) self-indulgence c) a set of questions that a lot of people
8) top executive are asked as a way of getting infor-
9) marketing research mation about what people think or
10) economies of scale do generally
  d) a large shop divided into separate
  sections, each section selling a diffe-
  rent type of thing
  e) a senior manager in a business or
  other organization
  f) people who work in offices rather
  than doing physical work
  g) the situation of being successful and
  having a lot of money
  h) the process of collecting information
  about what products people like to
  buy, or what people like or dislike
  about a particular product
  i) people who do physical work in
  places such as factories and mines
  j) the practice of allowing yourself to
  have or do something special that
  you like very much, often something
  you should not have or do


Nouns Verbs Adjectives

4. Grammar Focus

A. Complete the sentences with the right prepositions where ne­

on over to against at

on over to against at

1. The investment programme will lead ... the creation of hundreds of new jobs. 2. You can get cars in Europe ... very low prices. 3. You can have the order sent direct ... your home. 4. Secretaries spend hours ... the phone every day. 5. We should employ ... someone to manage production. 6. This goes ... everything I've been brought up to believe in. 7. The protests have spilled ... to other parts of the city. 8. Obviously there is a limit ... the amount we can get done in two weeks. 9. The answer ... your question is "yes". 10. There should be some protection ... harmful advertising.

B. Finish the conditional sentences according to the text Say what
type the conditional sentences are and translate them. Remember
that there are many ways of completing the sentences.

1. If there were no advertisements, ....

2. If you open a newspaper or a magazine, ... .

3. If there were no advertising agencies, ... .

4. The great business of merchandising would be impossible if ... .

5. Advertising could be depicted as "the engine of prosperity" if ... .

6. Consumers will be protected against false and harmful adver­tising if ... .

С Use information available in the text to make conditional sen­tences of your own.

5. Diving Deeper

Give detailed answers to the following questions.

1. What function does advertising serve in the eyes of many economists? 2. What is the economic effect of spurring demand for products by means of advertising? 3. How does advertising help the public? 4. What do the manufacturers and stores tell the public with the help of advertising? 5. Where and how often do advertisements appear? 6. How do many advertisements reach the public? 7. How are advertising companies called? 8. What is the role of marketing research in advertising? 9. Whom does the great business of merchandising employ for advertising? 10. What is the difference in salaries of those employed in advertising? 11. What is the reverse side of advertising? 12. What are the ways to protect the consumer against false or harmful advertising? 13. Should people always rely on advertisements? Why? 14. What's your opinion on advertising in your country?

6. Speaking

Tell your group-mates:

• what you consider an indispensable function of advertising;

• about the most important activities of advertising companies;

• about people involved in advertising;

• which negative sides of advertising are the gravest.

7. Discussion

In groups, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of advertising. Add as many ideas to those expressed in the article as you can. Report the results of your work to the whole group.

8. Writing

If you were asked to write a short encyclopaedia entry on adver­tising, what would it be like?

•; 9. Promotion

A. There are many ways of attracting customers to your product and keeping your name in the public eye. Fill the gaps with the suitable words and expressions from the box.


brochures key accounts reputation
catalogues leaflets showrooms
contribute packaging specific
direct mail point of sale stand
display press conference toll-free
effective press releases trade fairs and exhibitions
extent public relations trademark
hands-on publicity word of mouth
image recommend  
impact representatives  

1. Sales literature — ..., ... and ... can describe your product in more detail and give more information than an advertisement. Potential customers can be sent ... literature by post.

2. ... advertising — displays in retail outlets (supermarkets, chain stores, etc.) can attract the attention of potential customers.

3. ... — labels and presentation increase the ... of your product.

4. Sponsorship — you can ... to the cost of a sporting or artistic event, where the brand name or ... of your product is displayed prominently.

5. ... — potential customers can come to your premises and see a ... or a demonstration of your products and get ... experience.

6. ... — your company takes a ... or mounts an exhibit to enable customers in the same trade to see your products and talk to your ....

7. ... — the public are informed of a new development through newspaper articles. You can inform the press by issuing ... or by holding a ..., so that reporters can question your spokesperson.

8. ... — PR can ensure that your firm keeps a high profile, and that people are aware of your good ... and attractive ....

9. ... — existing customers tell their friends or colleagues about your product and hopefully ... it to them, so that they want to buy it.

8 Зак. 541 225

10. Telephone selling — your staff can call customers, or customers can call a ... number to request sales literature or ask for ... information.

11. Personal selling — your rep can visit customers: this is the most ... method of promotion, but also the most expensive. Travelling to meet a prospect may not always pay off. Your ... would be visited frequently.

12. If you are marketing a service it must be "visible" — your prospective customers must be fully aware of the ... of your service and its benefits.

B. Work in pairs. Consider these products. Which methods can be used to promote them? Which methods would probably not be suitable?

new houses a family hotel a conference centre

cheese an airline a magazine

computers bicycles an exhibition

cigarettes rail travel medicines

petrol a circus a zoo


A. Work in groups. For each of the points below think of three
goods /services that are provided in your city or region:

1) a grocery product (breakfast cereal, health food, etc.); 2) a brand of beer or a soft drink; 3) an industrial product (machines, consumer goods, vehicles, etc.); 4) a service (cleaning, temporary employment bureaus, etc.); 5) a place of entertainment (theatre, cinema, etc.); 6) a public service (telephones, mail, transport, etc.); 7) an educa­tional service (schools, universities, colleges, different courses, etc.); 8) a financial service (bank, insurance company, etc.); 9) another well-known local product: ....

B. Discuss in your groups the answers to the following

1. What is the image of each product? 2. What is the image of the company that produces it? 3. Where and how is each product advertised? 4. How effective are the advertisements? 5. How strongly or weakly is each of the products marketed? 6. What competition does each product face? (This may not be another brand, but another type 226

of product: people may prefer to buy clothes instead of going to the cinema, for example.) 7. What are the most popular goods / services in your city/region? 8. What goods / services would(n't) you personally recommend? Why (not)?

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