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E.g. You shouldn't have interfered in her affairs and made a mess of everything

The game continues with each player in turn trying to remember what the last player said, and then adding a new item to the sentence.

Players are out of the game if they: (a) make a memory mistake, or (b) hesitate too long. The players should not be eliminated for grammar mistakes — just correct the mistake and let the player continue.

An example round with a group of 6 players.

Player 1: You shouldn't have interfered in her affairs.

Player 2: You shouldn't have interfered in her affairs

and made a mess of everything. Player 3: You shouldn't have interfered in her affairs

and made a mess of everything and persisted

in going there. Player 4: You shouldn't have interfered in her affairs,

made a mess of everything ... (This player

makes a memory mistake and so is out.) Player 5: (beginning again) You shouldn't have lost your

(temper). Player 6: You shouldn't have lost your temper and reported him to the Dean.

And so on, with everybody, apart from Player 4, still in the game. Set a time limit depending on a number of students in your group and on how long your list of verbs is. The last player left is the winner.

Hints: You could play further rounds with different

starters, for example:

You should have asked more questions.

You should have asked more questions and worked harder.

You should have asked more questions, worked harder and read more books.

(A list of verbs is to be composed by the teacher in



Ex460. Translate into English

1. С какой стати мне не доверять им? 2. Невероятно, что он может верить в такую чушь. 3. Что же, мне лгать лишь ради приличий? 4. — Где дети? — Где же им еще быть, как не в постели? Уже 11 часов вечера. 5. Ужасно, что ты так презираешь людей беднее тебя.

6. Не вижу причин, почему вы должны расстаться. 7. Было странно, что такая молоденькая девушка оде­валась как старушка. 8. И чего это он вдруг позвонил мне? 9. Странно, что она влюбилась в этого ловеласа. 10. — Не следовало тебе вмешиваться. — Откуда мне было знать, что все так серьезно? 11. Забавно, что она выглядит такой важной. 12. Ну где же мне еще быть, как не здесь? 13. Есть нечто, что мне следовало ска­зать тебе вчера. Я собирался несколько раз, но муже­ство покинуло меня. 14. Не следовало тебе настаивать. Тебе следовало сразу понять, что случай безнадежный.

Ex 461. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the form meaning of the verb would

1. He had a wound that wouldn't heal. 2. The boy said he wouldn't eat up his porridge. 3. Jessica cried that she wouldn't go to bed without her teddy bear. 4. He would say over and over again that he wouldn't leave his father till he was better. He wouldn't agree to leave him to the care of the nurses. 5. If you would be happy for a week, take a wife; if you would be happy for a month kill a pig; but if you would be happy all your life, plant a garden. 6. Tired though she was, sleep wouldn't come to her. 7. He knew that one day he would win the world. 8. The monks would rise at four and pray and pray and pray. 9. She would often lie awake for a long time after she had gone to bed, thinking and planning. 10. Some­times Bessie would come up to my lonely bedroom, bringing a piece of cake, sometimes she would tell me a story, and sometimes she would kiss me goodnight. 11. — Someone's knocking at the door. — That would be the Pest Control man. 12. Not for love or money would he do it! 13. — Would you help me? — I would be delighted to do it! 14. Why she has to go I don't know, for she wouldn't say. 15. Once again, fate would intervene and change Norris's course. 16. It would be such an honour if you would attend our party. 17. They used to be our regular customers. 18. She didn't use to be like that. 19. Did you use to have long hair?


Ex. 462.Use would to express:

1) a wish

Model: You are impolite. — / wish you would be polite.

1. Ted is lazy. 2. Betty is so stubborn. 3. Monica isn't my friend. 4 He isn't trustworthy. 5. Nelly isn't hardworking. 6. She doesn't agree with me.

2) surprise

Model: They aren't here yet. — You would think that they've got lost.

1. She's blushing. 2. He's out -of breath. 3. They are scared. 4. The sky is black. 5. She's trembling like a leaf-6. He's complaining all the time.

3) an assumption

Model' Someone's coming to paint the ceiling. That would be the decorator.

1. Someone's coming to clean the windows. 2. Someone's coming to repair the car. 3 Someone's coming to collect the rent. 4. Someone's coming to mend the television. 5. Someone's coming to unblock the sink. 6. Someone's coming to read the meter.

Ex 463. Read the text and translate it. If you've ever had any experience of the same kind, speak about it

The Way to Florence

I went on the world's slowest train to Florence. It limped across the landscape like a runner with a pulled muscle, and it had no buffet. At first it was crowded, but as afternoon gave way to evening and evening merged into the inkiness of night, there were fewer and fewer of us left, until eventually it was a businessman buried in paperwork and me. Every two or three miles the train stopped at some darkened station where no train had stopped for weeks, where grass grew on the platforms and where no one got on and no one got off. Sometimes the train would come to a halt in the middle of nowhere, in the black countryside, and just sit. It would sit for so long that you began to wonder if the driver had gone off into the surrounding fields for a pee and fallen down a well. After a time the train would roll backwards for perhaps thirty yards, then stop and sit again. Then suddenly, with a mightly whoomp that made the carriage rock and the windows sound as if they were about to implode, a train on the parallel line would fly past. Bright lights would flash by — you could see people in there dining and playing cards, having a wonderful time, moving across Europe at the speed of a laser — and then all would be silent again and we would sit for another eternity before our train gathered the energy to creep onwards to the next desolate station. It was well after eleven when we reached Florence.

(after B. Bryson)

Ex. 464. A. Insert used to or would.

1. When we were young we ... spend every summer on the beach. We ... swim, sunbathe, catch crabs. 2. We ... live in this street. 3.1 ... meet her and she ... say, "Can't stop. I must get home." 4. Mr. Dobson ... be very generous to his servants. 5. She ... often hear him grumbling to himself. 6. What an agreeable town this ... be! 7. On Sundays he ... sleep late. 8. My English friends ... send me cards at Christmas time. 9. Whenever I went on hikes with my friends, we ... make a wood fire, bake potatoes, play the guitar and sing songs. 10. The museum ... be in the city centre. 11. — Oh, I've become so absent-minded! — But you ... be very punctual. 12. — Does Denny smoke? — He ... , but I think he has given it up. 13. Julia never ... be aggressive. 14. Every Saturday evening, Father ... take out his old accordion and start to play old songs. Mother ... look at us severely if we laughed or made a noise. Sometimes Father ... go on for hours. 15. My Grandfather ... smoke like a chimney. 16. The Romans ... enjoy gladiatorial shows.

B. Discuss with other students what you used to do and what you didn't use to do when you were a child (a teenager).

Ex. 465.Translate into English.

1. Я бы очень хотела, чтобы ты не говорила об этом, мама. 2. Мы ждем уже полчаса, а поезда все нет. 3. Давай остановимся! Не годится портить наши хо­рошие отношения. 4. Видишь ли, это выглядело бы странно, если бы ты пошел туда. 5. Мы уговариваем ее уйти на пенсию, но она и слушать не хочет. 6. Он пообещал, что вскоре навестит их. 7. Что-то случи­лось с замком, и чемодан никак не открывался-8. Никто не предполагал, что французы выиграют кубок. 9. Можно подумать, что мир остановился бы без нее. 10. Было бы интересно увидеть его реакцию на эту новость. 11. Мистер Грант, бывало, проводил часы в кабинете, рисуя фамильное древо. 12. Как она ни старалась, сон не шел к ней. 13. Хотелось бы, что­бы вы не курили здесь. 14. — Я слышу звон буты­лок на пороге. — Это точно молочник. 15. Все улики были против него, но он упорно не признавал своей вины. 16. Он пытался что-то сказать, но слова не шли. 17. Он имел обыкновение рассказывать нам о своем детстве. 18. У него было обыкновение принимать таб­летки перед сном? 19. У нее не было привычки спать после обеда. 20. У меня никогда не было обыкнове­ния так говорить.

Ex 466.Fill in the spaces with should (have), would (have).

1. He ... do as he is told or it ... be the worse for him. 2. He ... know better if he were a little older. 3. ... the guests arrive before the time, show them into the drawing-room. 4. He has been misled by people who ... have known better. 5.1... be ashamed to acknowledge my cowardice, if I were in your place. 6. Most savages ... run away if they heard a gun for the first time. 7.1... learn music if I only had the time. 8. God promised Noah after the flood that day and night, summer and winter ... not cease, and that there ... never come another flood upon the earth. 9. One ... see and hear much, and speak little, and one ... only believe the half of what he hears. 10. Those who live in glass houses ... not throw stones. 11.1 made up my mind that he ... pay what he owed me. 12. He was so miserly that he ... not give anything to the poor. 13. It seemed so incredible that I... not believe it at first. 14. People who ... hear good of themselves, ... not listen behind doors. 15. The donkey ... not go any faster even when he was beaten. 16.1 said you were wrong, but you were so obstinate that you ... listen to it. 17. ... misfortune overtake us, we must trust in Providence. 18. You ... not be so easily cast down by a small misfortune. 19. He ...have written better, if he had had more time. 20.1... have arrived on time, if I had not lost my watch.


Ex. 467.Insert the verbs can, could, may, might, should, would

1. It is very curious that you ... take that view. 2. It is disappointing that he ... know so little. 3. If the enterprise ... succeed, he will be a rich man. 4.1 hope I... be famous some day. 5.1... not despair even though I... lose all my money. 6. He declared he ... not believe it, even though he ... see it with his own eyes. 7. It ...be so, though I doubt it. 8. He ... perhaps succeed, if he changed his way of living. 9. If there were less ice it... be easy to reach the Pole. 10.1... come and see you next summer, but my plans are not fixed. 11. If the matter were less involved, I... possibly be able to help you. 12. However poor a man ... be, he has always something to be thankful for. 13. If it... turn out wet, we must seek shelter where we can. 14.1 am grieved that you ... be so overworked. 15. If disaster... come upon us, we will cling to our leader. 16. Pigs ... fly, but they ... be strange birds. 17. If that... happen, we could only say it was contrary to our experience. 18. Yet we trust that the sun ... continue to rise as before, and that we ... be alive to enjoy its warmth.


Ex. 468.Read and translate the sentences Comment on the meanings of the verb shall

1. That's against the law! I shall complain to the council. 2. Well, what shall we do next? 3. Shall I tell you the real reason, sir? 4. Let's go there, shall we? 5. It is a clever piece of work — and useful — as you shall see. 6. "You shall retain your human forms in the Impossible World," said Old Nancy to the spies. "You shall become a hassock. You shall never, never return." 7. — Seek and you shall find. — All right, I shall try. 8. — As a man lives so shall he die. — Yes, as you sow, so shall you reap. 9. Come live with me and you shall know me. 10. Even as the 270

father was so shall the son be. 11. He is your enemy and you shall meet him everywhere. 12. He that has no money, shall need no purse. 13. He that commands well, shall be obeyed well. 14. Fragile articles, money, jewellery, business documents shall not be accepted as checked baggage. 15. Blessed be he who expects nothing, for he shall never be disappointed.


Ex 469. Translate into English

1. — Нам остаться дома или же пойти с вами? — Это вам решать. 2. — Мне ответить на телефонный зво­нок? — Да, пожалуйста. 3. Если не последуете моим приказам, то вы меня еще вспомните. 4. Как посеешь, так и пожнешь. 5. Не волнуйся, дорогая, ты получишь это кольцо. 6. Будь спокоен, ты получишь по заслу­гам. 7. Они будут следовать за вами повсюду, как тени. 8. Если послушаешь этого дилера, то точно потеряешь все свои деньги. 9. Она боится, что ей придется отве­чать за свои грехи. 10. Будь уверен, они обеспечат твою полную безопасность. 11. Если все будет в порядке, я позвоню тебе. 12. Не знаю, куда мы поедем отдыхать следующим летом. 13. Учти, ничто не останется без­наказанным. 14. Уверяю вас, ничего подобного боль­ше не произойдет. 15. Что же мне тебе посоветовать?


Ex . 470. Read and translate the sentences Comment on the meanings of the verb will

I. And I want you to help me, sir, if you will. 2. People will gossip, it's in their nature. 3.1 will wait for you for a thousand summers till you are back beside me! 4. Now, miss, if you will be so good, listen to me! 5. "I will lead you home if you will trust me," she said. 6. Whatever will be, will be! 7. Keep your mouth shut, will you? 8. — Will you invite them for the weekend? — No, they will be away. 9.1 will take no more "I love you" from you. 10. A wise man changes his mind, a fool never will. 11. There's none so blind as those who will not see 12. Boys will be boys. Sometimes girls will be boys 13. We'd like her to retire but she won't listen. 14. Еmma has a strong character: she will not do what she is told to do. 15. Friends will be friends right to the end. 16. "Bad accidents", he said, "will happen." 17. Well, I'll leave you now if you will excuse me. 18. If you think that a language is hard, it will be hard. 19. He will chair the meeting. Always.

Ex. 471.Look at the following examples and:

1. decide which of them express purely the future. 2 find a way of paraphrasing any examples which don't express futurity, but carry some modal meaning.

1. Will you have another drink? 2. Will you marry me? 3. Do you think the President will win the next election? 4. He will speak with his mouth full. 5. Trespassers will be prosecuted. 6. Opening the door will trigger off the alarm. 7. That will be the postman. 8. Oil will float on water. 9.1 shall do it. I will certainly profit by it. 10. Will you shut up! Truth will out all the same! 11. She will always have it her own way. 12. Will I be happy, will I be rich? 13. The bird will always fly away before the cat can jump on it. 14. If you will wait for me, I'll be right back. 15. He will not accept that some of us are born to rule, and others need to be ruled.

Ex. 472.Translate into English.

1. Что бы ни случилось, я всегда буду с тобой. 2. — А не потанцуешь ли ты со мной? — Потанцую. 3. Он не уверен, что справится с заданием. 4. Пойди погуляй с собакой, хорошо? 5. Преступления не скроешь. Прав­да выйдет наружу. 6. Голос крови обязательно скажет­ся. 7. Студенты есть студенты. Они все равно будут пропускать лекции. 8. Мы уговариваем ее купить ве­чернее платье, но она и слушать не хочет. 9. Справед­ливость все равно восторжествует. 10. Она всегда на­стоит на своем и ни за что не уступит. 11. Я поговорю с тобой, если ты соблаговолишь подождать меня. 12. А сейчас, если вы извините меня, мне и в самом деле пора уходить. 13. Я пытаюсь открыть баночку горчи­цы, но крышка никак не открывается. 14. Дворники в машине никак не работают (windscreen wipers).


Eх. 473. Complete the following with the verbs shall (not) or will

Jenny: Dad, ... we use cars twenty years from now? Mr. Bell: I think we ... , but they ... use petrol. They ... be electric.

Jenny: ... we still have pollution? Mr. Bell: I hope we ... , but I'm afraid we .... Jenny: And what... I be like? Mr. Bell: You ... be older. Jenny: But... I be different? Mr. Bell: You ... be taller.

Jenny: But... I turn green and drive a spaceship? Mr. Bell: Don't worry, Jenny. You... look like a Martian.

2. — ... it rain tomorrow? — If it does, I... take an umbrella. 3. — How old ... you be next birthday? — I... be thirteen. 4. — ... I do the shopping today, Mum? — Dad ... do it. 5. There ... be many interesting people in your life. 6.1 have eaten three pizzas. I hope I... be ill. 7. You ... be a successful man one day.


Ex 474. Comment on the use of the verbs shall and will.

1. You can go back to the old life if you want to, but I shall stay with my poetry and my flute and my new life. 2. "Drive carefully, Nigel," Tamara cautioned. "Don't worry, I will. See you later, darling." 3. It's absolutely monstrous! I shall complain to the Dean! 4. "Go back to Paris and leave me alone, Alex." "I will go if you will come with me, yes," he said. 5. But you'd better not try cheating in this school, young lady. I shall be keeping a very careful eye on you from now on! 6. — Happy birthday, Mother! Congratulations! And your present is being delivered later. I hope you will like it. — I'm sure I will darling. 7. Miss Honey turned and walked out of the study feeling depressed but by no means defeated. I am going to do something about this child, she told herself. I don't know what it will be, but I shall find a way to help her in the end. 8. "I don't really want to go beyond that price," she said, "but I will if I have to." 9. When you are ready to leave, I shall take you to dinner at the Ritz. 10.1 will never forget tonight as long as I live.

Ought to

Ex 475.Comment on the meaning of the modal verb ought to Translate the sentences into Russian

1. Kings ought to be kings in all things. 2. A liar ought to have a good memory. 3. We ought to weigh well what we can only once decide. 4. We pass our lives in doing what we ought not, and leaving undone what we ought to. 5. He ought to have been more tactful and would have been but for the stress of the moment. 6. Everybody thinks that I ought not to complain. 7. Molly hesitated. Ought she to accept this present from a stranger? 8. The child is delicate, she ought to have a change of air. 9.1 suppose we really ought not to be laughing at her, but I just can't help it. 10. But Jack, I've got a feeling that we ought to go on, if only we could ... . 11. Before the children could wonder what they ought to do, the King spoke. 12. You ought to remember the rule, it has been explained so many times before. 13. — He ought to have done what I told him. — Ought I to speak to him? 14. You oughtn't to have tried to escape from prison. It made things worse. 15.1 really ought to find something to take my mind off my troubles.

Ex. 476.Translate into English

1. Я чувствую, что мне следует проводить больше вре мени со своими детьми. 2. Я считаю, что мне следует отказаться от этой идеи. Игра не стоит свеч. 3. Мне следовало купить чего-нибудь к чаю, печенья или кон­фет. 4. Тебе следовало это предвидеть. 5. Следует сде­лать все возможное, чтобы помочь им. 6. Вам следует стыдиться самого себя. 7. Учителю следует знать пси­хологию ребенка. 8. Тебе следует спать, а не смотреть сериал. 9. Ирине следует быть более решительной. 10. Что мне следует сделать, чтобы ты была счастли­ва? 11. Марине следует пересмотреть свои взгляды. 12. Следует ли мне быть откровенной с ним? 13. Ему следовало бы помнить правила и ехать по левой сто­роне. 14. Тебе следует следить за своим весом.

Dare (to)

Ex . 477. Read, translate and comment on the use of the verb dare (to)

1. Molly dare not think about that. 2. Neither of them dared to speak of what he might do when he came. 3. "They dare not touch it either, even if they do know where it is," replied Old Nancy. 4. How do you dare deceive me? You are fired! 5.1 daresay, young man, it's time you settled down. 6. Still, I daresay we could reach the camp before dusk if we don't have to make too many stops. 7. She doesn't dare to go dancing. 8. Children didn't dare to misbehave. 9. Sergei dared not disobey the teacher. 10. How did you dare play truant? 11. He longed to know more about her, yet he did not dare ask her anything.


Ex 478. Translate into English

1. He трогай кошку, она может оцарапать тебя. 2. Со­бака может быть очень приятной компанией во время долгих загородных прогулок. 3. Не могу удержаться, чтобы не сказать тебе, что ты не должен приходить, когда тебе вздумается. 4. Ситуацию можно было спас­ти одним единственным словом, и это все еще можно сделать. 5. — Твоя фотокамера, должно быть, очень до­рогая. — Понятия не имею, сколько она может стоить. Это подарок. 6. Ни к чему тебе брать с собой все эти 275

пакеты. Ты можешь оставить их в машине. 7. — Не нужно было вам ехать туда поездом. Мы могли отвез­ти вас на машине. — Мы не осмелились обратиться к вам. 8. Нам не пришлось лететь туда самолетом, они отвезли нас на машине. 9. Он, должно быть, изучает физику, как и его отец. 10. — Бабушке может не по­нравиться такой подарок. — Ну, с ней ты не можешь быть полностью уверен. — Как ты осмеливаешься так говорить о ней! 11. Джон не мог потерять новые часы, он, вероятно, куда-то их переложил. 12. Она поняла, что и ей суждено было испытать всю горечь предательства. 13. — Возражение следует высказать сейчас же. — Я не осмеливаюсь сделать это. 14. Ты мог бы справиться с этим еще тогда. Осмелишься ли ты рискнуть сейчас? 15. Он, бывало, навещал их время от времени, но упор­но не хотел писать писем. 16. Тебе лучше не носить ей больше шоколад, пока она лежит в больнице. 17. По­жалуй, я сегодня надену что-нибудь яркое. У меня деп­рессия. 18. Она никогда не осмеливается возражать своему боссу.

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