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II. Употребление прошедших времен





 

Время Случаи употребления Примеры
The Past Indefinite (Simple) Tense 1) если речь идет о событии, которое имело место в прошлом   2) для описания состояний и привычек в прошлом   3) для описания последовательных действий в прошлом   4) в рассказах, повествованиях, историях   We went to the theatre last night. Why were you so angry? Why didn’t you phone me on Tuesday?   I smoked forty cigarettes a day till I gave up. He lived in Rome for ten years. (but not now)   He left the hotel, took a taxi and drove to the theatre. When I arrived to the station I went to the booking office and bought a ticket.   Once there was a man who lived in a small house in the country. One day he left his house and went into town. On his way he met
The Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense 1) для описания действия, длящегося в конкретный момент в прошлом   2) для описания длительного действия в процессе в прошлом   3) для описания длительного действия, прерванного однократным   4) для описания длительных действий, происходящих одновременно 5) для обозначения запланированного действия в прошлом   6) для обозначения действия, происходящего чаще обычного в прошлом (нередко употребляются наречия always, forever, constantly, continually) What were you doing at 6 o’clock last night?” – “I was watching the news on TV.” I saw you yesterday evening. You were waiting for a bus.   I was living abroad in 1987. It was raining all night.   As/Just as/When/While I was leaving, the telephone rang. While/When/As/Just as she was paying for the petrol, a boy stole her wallet from her car.   While I was reading, Joan was playing the piano.   Everybody was excited because they were leaving for Paris the next day.   When I worked here I was always making mistakes.   She was constantly breaking the dishes.  
The Past Perfect Tense 1) для обозначения действия, завершенного к определенному моменту в прошлом (нередко употребляются союзы after, before, when) 2) в сочетаниях hardly, scarcely, nearly, barely + Past Perfect ... when Past Simple   3) в сочетании no sooner + Past Perfect ... than Past Simple When we came to the station the train had already gone.     He had hardly done it when they came. (Hardly had he done it when they came.)   No sooner they had arrived than it started to rain. (No sooner had they arrived than is started to rain.)
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense 1) для обозначения действия, начавшегося до определенного момента в прошлом, длившегося до этого момента и продолжающегося в тот момент (нередко употребляются союзы since, for)   2) для обозначения длительного действия, завершившегося незадолго до определенного момента в прошлом I had been walking for about half an hour when it suddenly started to rain. Dave had been driving for an hour when his car broke down.   Outside everything was in a deep snow. It had been snowing hard all night (not at that moment).

 



Note. Обратите внимание на то, что Past Indefinite, но не Present Perfect употребляется:

1) с указаниями на прошедшее время типа yesterday, last week/ month, year, in 1930 и т.д.: I am sorry about what happened last night.

2) с наречием just now (только что): I saw him just now.

3) в вопросительном предложении, начинающемся с when: When did you last see her?

 

Ex. 4. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or the Past Continuous Tense.

1. I lit the fire at 6.00 and it (burn) brightly when Tom came in at 7.00. 2. When I arrived the lecture had already started and the professor (write) on the overhead projector. 3. I (make) a cake when the light went out. I had to finish it in the dark. 4. I didn't want to meet Paul so when he entered the room I (leave). 5. Unfortunately when I arrived Ann just (leave), so we only had time for a few words. 6. He (watch) TV when the phone rang. Very unwillingly he (turn) down the sound and (go) to answer it. 7. He was very polite. Whenever his wife entered the room, he (stand) up. 8. The admiral (play) bowls when he received news of the invasion. He (insist) on finishing the game. 9. My dog (walk) along quietly when Mr. Pitt's Pekinese attacked him. 10. When I arrived she (have) lunch. She apologized for starting without me but said that she always (lunch) at 12.30. 11. He always (wear) a raincoat and (carry) an umbrella when he walked to the office. 12. What you (think) of his last book? – I (like) it very much. 13. I (share) a flat with him when we were students. He always (complain) about my untidiness. 14. He suddenly (realize) that he (travel) in the wrong direction. 15. He (play) the guitar outside her house when someone opened the window and (throw) out a bucket of water. 16. I just (open) the letter when the wind (blow) it out of my hand. 17. The burglar (open) the safe when he (hear) footsteps. He immediately (put) out his torch and (crawl) under the bed. 18. When I (look) for my passport I (find) this old photograph. 19. You looked very busy when I (see) you last night. What you (do)? 20. The boys (play) cards when they (hear) their father's step. They immediately (hide) the cards and (take) out their lesson books. 21. He (clean) his gun when it accidentally (go) off and (kill) him. 22. He (not allow) us to go out in the boat yesterday as a strong wind I (blow). 23.As I (cross) the road I (step) on a banana skin and (fall) heavily. 24. I still (lie) on the road when I (see) a lorry approaching. 25. Luckily the driver (see) me and (stop) the lorry in time. 26. How you (damage) your car so badly? – I (run) into a lamp-post yesterday. – I suppose you (drive) too quickly or were not looking where you (go). 27. As he (get) into the bus it (start) suddenly and he (fall) backwards on to the road. 28. I (call) Paul at 7.00 but it wasn't necessary because he already (get) up. 29. When he (mend) the fuse he (get) a very bad shock. 30. When I (hear) his knock I (go) to the door and (open) it, but I (not recognize) him at first because I (not wear) my glasses. 31. When I came in they (sit) round the fire. Mr. Pitt (do) a crossword puzzle, Mrs. Pitt (knit), the others (read). Mrs. Pitt (smile) at me and (say), 'Come and sit down.' 32. While the guests (dance) thieves (break) into the house and (steal) a lot of fur coats. 33. The next day, as they (know) that the police (look) for them, they (hide) the coats in a wood and (go) off in different directions.





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